The image shows from side, an electric locomotive responsible for the propulsion of the other coupled cargo wagons, provided with two driving positions, in the left and right ends, these being used depending on the direction of travel of the train.
The locomotive is represented in the shape of an embossed rectangle, at the base of which are three pairs of wheels, left, and three other pairs, right, joined by an iron coupling rod, rendered as six blank circles, crossed on the center by a horizontal and thickened line.
On the roof of the locomotive is located the pantograph or the device through which the motor is supplied with electricity at the contact with the overhead cables.
The pantograph is mounted at the top of each driver’s cabin, left and right edge and is represented by a broken line with curved top end, joined, at the bottom, by an embossed rectangle.
The left and right ends of the locomotive have a driver’s cab, which has at their top two narrow rectangles, blank outlined, representing the windows.
The small window of the doors of each cabin, as well as the side windows of the locomotive, are rendered by small and blank circles.
The car body or outer skeleton of the locomotive is rendered embossed and covers the engine box and the internal skeleton.
At the right and left edge of the locomotive, on each lower bar, are placed two buffers, from side being shown only one on each edge, highlighted by a small and thick rectangle, used in order to keep a certain distance between the wagons and to cushion the shocks between them while moving.
In the bottom left and right ends are the headlights that illuminates or signals in front.
Under the two coupling pads is the locomotive pilot or cow plow, a device called by the Americans “cow catcher”, invented by them in order to push the animals, especially cattle, off the track, when they blocked the road.
The pilot is also used to remove any obstacles on the rails that prevent the train from moving on, be it rocks, animals, snow or other objects.
The pilot is like a shield made of two hard metal plates, joined in the center, at the base of the locomotive facade, just above the rails, and is marked by a triangle, one left and one right, filled with xs texture.
A man is standing in the right bottom corner, thus positioned to facilitate the comparison of the dimensions of the locomotive to the height of an adult.
The electric locomotive is a railway vehicle powered by electricity from external sources or from batteries mounted on board.
Unlike the steam wagon, the electric one could operate non-stop, without the care of coal or water supply. Compared to the Diesel wagon, the electric wagon was quieter, cleaner and had more power.
Electric wagons are easier on the rail, reducing rail maintenance. In addition, they are ideal for rail freight service with frequent stops. Electric wagons are in a word efficient.
The first known electric wagon was built in 1837 by Scottish chemist Robert Davidson and was powered by galvanic cells (batteries). In 1841, Davidson built a larger wagon, dubbed “Galvani”. The vehicle, which weighed seven tonnes, managed to reach a weight of six tonnes on a route of approximately 3 kilometers, with a speed of 6 kilometers per hour. Ultimately, the locomotive was destroyed by some railway employees, who considered it a threat to job security.
The first electric passenger train was presented in 1879 by German engineer Werner von Siemens, in Berlin. The wagon had a 2.2 kW engine and was pulling three “wagons” (actually small wheeled platforms) with a speed of 13 kilometers per hour. It was powered by 150 V DC, using a third rail mounted between the running ones. In just four months, the train carried over 86,000 passengers on a 300-meter circular route.
We owe Werner von Siemens the tram today because in 1881 he built the first tram line in Lichterfelde, near Berlin.
In the USA, among the pioneers of rail traction we can mention Thomas Edison, Stephen D. Field and Leo Daft. Thus, the first American electric locomotive was built after Edison’s projects in 1880. The electric current was taken over by the running track.
On December 9, 1965, the first electric wagons were introduced in Romania. They traveled on the difficult section Predeal-Brașov, with a maximum speed of 120 kilometers per hour. In 1966, the manufacture of electric locomotives 060-EA also starts in Romania, based on the Swedish license, followed by the realization of the 060-EA1 variant. The electrical part and the general assembly were made by Electroputere Craiova, and the mechanical part was provided by ICM Resita. These two types of Romanian electric wagons are among the most modern European wagons.
Claudiu Andone, Povestea locomotivei, disponibil online la https://stiintasitehnica.com/povestea-locomotivei/, accesat la 23 ianuarie2020.