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Image description

The image shows from side, above, and from the inside, sectioned, below, a vehicle used for railway transport, consisting of three connected wagons, on electric traction, pulled on rails by a motor wagon, facing left and called a tram.

At the top, the two wagons in the center and right are represented in the form of embossed rectangles, at the base of which are the wheels, as pairs of two embossed circles.

The wagons are joined by articulation system elements, respectively bellows, which help them twist, and which are similar to a an unfolded fan of leather or other fibers.

The delimitation of the wagons by the bellows can be done through the top of the tram, respectively through the roof line that has two short cut segments, which frame the central wagon.

The power wagon on the left is distinguished from the others by the fact that has at its top, on the roof, on the left edge, a pantograph, rendered by a broken line, fed on electrical power, sliding on the overhead lines.

The overhead power lines are marked by an horizontal line, located at the top of the tram.

The left end of the power wagon is reserved for the driver’s cab, and has the windshield or the front window, shown as half of a blank rectangle.

The side windows are at the top, lined up along the wagons, rendered as blank squares, framed by the door of each wagon.

The wagons at the ends have two side doors each, and the central wagon has only one.

The five pairs of double doors are highlighted by two vertical and joined rectangles, with rectangular windows above, marked by blank shapes.

Below, on the right, a man is standing, thus positioned to facilitate the comparison of the dimensions of the tram to the height of an adult.

In the lower half of the image, the inside of the tram is shown sectioned, without the car body.

Downstairs, next to the five pairs of double doors, which are not illustrated here, are stairs, rendered by the texture of horizontal and parallel lines.

Between the stairs are shown horizontal, embossed rectangles, representing the floor inside.

On the floor are placed, in two similar rows, sixteen chairs with backrests, and another chair for the tram driver, located in his cabin on the left edge.

The two rows are separated by a long and narrow corridor, from side being illustrated only a row of chairs, framed by metal bars, to delimit the door seats.

There are no seats at the right end of the tram, therefore, it is an empty space where passengers can only stand, holding on the safety bars.

At the fourth door, the counter starting from the left, a man is shown standing on the stairs.

Additional data

The tram is a rail vehicle that runs along the city streets, and sometimes on a dedicated track. The lines served by trams are called tram lines. Trams have almost exclusively electric traction, although in the 19th century there were also trams pulled by horses.

Trams are usually lighter and shorter than trains and subways. Today, most trams use electric traction, usually the supply is made from a catenary through the pantograph. In some cases a third rail, trolley or lira is used. If necessary, they can have hybrid electric power systems on city streets, and with diesel outside the city. Trams are now usually included in the broader term “light rail”, which also includes other dedicated rail systems.

Tram lines can be extended between cities (for example, by intercity lines, or tram-trains) or even between different countries (for example in Basel, Strasbourg), or can travel on a dedicated route, even in cities (light rail). ). Rarely, trams can also carry freight, for example materials needed for line maintenance. Due to this versatility, the differences between the different modes of rail transport are often blurred.

One of the advantages over previous forms of transport was the low rolling resistance of steel wheels on rails, which allowed the animals to carry a larger load for a given effort. The problem with horse-drawn trams was that the animals could only work for a limited number of hours on a given day, they had to be housed, fed and cared for daily, and produced significant amounts of debris that the company had to dispose of. Electric trams largely replaced those with animal traction at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport, such as buses, led to the decline of trams in the mid-20th century, followed by a revival at the beginning of the 21st century.

In the Romanian language, the word tram comes from the English tram and no distiction is made between articulated or wagon trams or depending on the type of the rail on which it runs. In addition to the terms tram and tramway, in English streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar are also used, depending on the location and type of vehicle.

Bibliography:

  1. Wikiwand, disponibil online la https://www.wikiwand.com/ro/Tramvai accesat la 21 octombrie 2019

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