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Image description

The image shows the structure and the working principle of an elevator, between three levels of the building, viewed from the front.

For correct interpretation, the image must be rotated ninety degrees to the right so that it remains in portrait format.

The building is rendered in the left and right edges by grid texture, and the floors are delimited by horizontal and thickened lines, but also by the number of the floor inscribed in the lower left corner of each level.

On the first and second floors, a man is waiting at the elevator door.

To understand this working principle, we list the components and the role that each has:

  • In the center of the building, between the floors, there is a blank, vertical and long rectangle, representing the elevator shaft. This is the free space in the plaster in which the lift moves and contains the guide rails on which the car and the counterweight move;
  • At the top, near the second floor in the center left, is suspended the elevator car, in which passengers are transported, and which has a weight limit that the engine can support on its cables. Inside the cabin is the destination control panel with the command buttons for each floor and also an emergency button.

The car is rendered by an embossed square, whose doors are highlighted in the center of the square by a smaller square, attached to the base, filled with texture of oblique and parallel lines.

  • The guide rails are located on the sides of the elevator shaft and have the role of stabilizing both the cab and the counterweight, preventing balancing. This creates a smooth running of the elevator in both directions, without the passengers feeling sudden movements of the car.
  • The counterweight is used to reduce engine effort. Similar to the action of a seesaw, it creates a constant energy, with the help of which the elevator car is raised or lowered.
    Thus, when the cabin goes up to the top floor, respectively two, as shown in the picture, then the counterweight goes down, reaching the ground floor.

The counterweight is represented on the ground floor, the left central side, in the elevator shaft, as a vertical rectangle, embossed, crossed by horizontal and parallel lines.

The counterweight consists of superimposed heavy and thick pieces of iron or other heavy metal.

  • The electric motor-generator raises and lowers the elevator car, by the command received in the control panel, when passengers are pressing the button in the elevator or outside of it. It is helped to transport this weight of the car by a pulley system on metal cables, respectively steel ropes, attached to the elevator car.

The pulley is a wheel with a trench dug on its edge, placed peripherally, through which cables or ropes are rolled to lift weights.

The pulley or the driving machine is shown in the image above and below, at the ends of the shaft, in the center of the building, in the form of a blank circle in the middle of which is a smaller embossed circle.

The two pulleys are connected by the suspension ropes, marked with two vertical lines, parallel and thickened, on which the counterweight is also traveling, on the left, behind the car.

General information

With the emergence and development of multiple industries, the need to expand living spaces has also increased. Large companies need offices to carry out administrative activities, to carry out commercial activities, but also to accommodate employees. That is how business centers came about, which are multi-storey blocks that house offices and shops. In addition to the business centers, residential centers have appeared, which are apartment blocks intended for everyday living.

To reduce the area occupied horizontally, but also to maximize the useful space, the vertical expansion of buildings developed, building floors above other floors. Increasing the height of buildings, moving between multiple floors has become difficult. To facilitate the ups and down of the floors, the electric elevators were installed.

The main components of an elevator are: the elevator cab, which moves up and down inside a canal, and where people stand; the metal cables supporting the cab and transmitting the action of the electric motor; the electric motor that serves to move the cab up and down; the braking system; various safety systems that protect people in the event of a cable breaking.

Inside the cabin is a set of buttons which we select to order the elevator what floor we want to go to, as well as an emergency button, for example, if we are stuck between floors or the elevator door no longer opens. When you press the emergency button, an alarm will be triggered that can be heard by the other tenants of the block, who can notify the problem at the company in charge of the maintenance of the elevator. In the case of modern elevators, the notification of the malfunction is transmitted directly to the company responsible for troubleshooting the elevator. Modern elevators are also equipped with accessible buttons for people with vision impairment, their functions being highlighted in the Braille alphabet.

Did you know that the tallest building in the world is a hundred and sixty-three storey high and is in Dubai? It is eight hundred and twenty-eight meters high. The tallest building in Romania is Sky Tower in Bucharest. It is one hundred and thirty-seven meters tall and thirty-seven storey high.

Bibliography

  1. https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lista_celor_mai_%C3%AEnalte_cl%C4%83diri_din_Rom%C3%A2nia
  2. https://www.spatiulconstruit.ro/articol/cum-au-aparut-blocurile/14629
  3. https://life.ro/cele-mai-inalte-cladiri-din-lume/
  4. https://www.mpifma.ro/structura-si-principiul-de-functionare-a-lifturilor/

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