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Image description

The image shows an electrical conductor through which electrons are transported between three atoms, inside the electric field.

The conductor is represented by a rectangular frame, embossed.

In its center are three atoms, made up of electrons and a central nucleus with protons and neutrons.

The nuclei are rendered by three thickened circles, in the middle of which are positive charges, marked with plus.

The electrons orbit on closed trajectories, in the form of circles arranged around the nucleus, called orbits, and are highlighted by three small, thickened circles, marked in the center with a minus, that is they have a negative charge.

In the upper part of the three atoms, left and right, are two curved arrows, thickened, with the tip to the right, indicating the direction of movement of electrons, from the left side of the orbit of the first atom on the left, on top of the orbit of the central atom, and then to the right of the right atom’s orbit.

Electrons carrying negative charges are attracted to the orbits of atoms with more positive charges, respectively with fewer electrons, called positive ions, so as to reach a charge equilibrium and be a neutral atom.

Thus, if the atom loses electrons, such as the one on the left, it becomes a positive ion.

When the atom receives electrons, such as the one in the middle and the one on the right, it becomes a negative ion.

The production and maintenance of electric current is determined by this need to reach equilibrium of charges, and be neutral, due to the electric voltage between the three atoms.

Additional data

Electrical conductivity (also called specific electrical conductivity) is the physical quantity that characterizes the ability of a material to allow the transport of electrical charges when placed in an electric field.

Electrical conductivity is the property of materials to allow the passage of electric current.

Electrical conductance is the quantity that expresses the ability of a given conductor or circuit to conduct electric current. The conductance is measured in siemens (S) and is the inverse quantity of the electrical resistance measured in ohms.

For example, in conductors, due to internal agitation, the multitude of electrons moving from one atom to another can be assimilated with an electronic gas in which the interactions between electrons are negligible. It is taken into account that the electrons collide with the positive metal ions after traveling the middle free path, with a calculable speed. Due to the natural internal agitation, the electrons have different speeds, as well as directions, directions, being able to calculate an average group speed:

If an electric field is applied to the conductor from the outside, the electrons ripped from the field have a certain direction, direction and calculable speed. If we take into account the interactions between electrons, they have a certain mass, curves the space around them, changing the trajectories given by collisions with the crystal structure of conductors, some energy turning into a gravitational element, generating a distorting mirror of time in relation to mass.

Bibliography:

https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conductivitate_electric%C4%83

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