The image shows a carnivorous mammal, a predator recognized in the cold, northern lands, seen in profile, oriented to the right side, called a polar bear, rendered in relief.It is characterized by very large dimensions, being a robust animal, resistant to extremely low temperatures, due to its long and dense fur cover, and its weight that varies, depending on gender, between 150 and 450 kilograms.The body is convex, with four thick and short limbs, ending in round paws with elongated claws, used in catching its prey, and a small, prominent tail on the left.It has a square head, slightly flattened, with an elongated and narrow snout towards the tip of the nose, a wide neck and small, rounded ears.Next to the polar bear, on the right, there is a man, as a landmark to determine its real proportions.
The bear is part of the family of large mammals and is widespread in the northern hemisphere, with several species in South America [bibliography 1]. They are large, massive and massive omnivorous animals, with a short tail and usually hidden between the fur brushes, with a round head, elongated and usually truncated snout, short and thick neck, short ears and relatively small eyes. The paws have five toes with strong, curved, sharp and non-retractable claws that they use to tear prey and dig the ground. They run fast and are resilient, and in their movements they are attentive and precise. They can also walk on hind legs, climb trees, especially smaller species, and swim well. Bears usually live alone and only live in pairs during the breeding season. Bears are nocturnal animals, and during the day they hide in tree hollows or dens. Most species live in large, dense forests or rocky lands, roaming large areas. Some species live near flowing or stagnant waters, rich in food, and only the polar bear is a marine species and the most massive of them [bibliography 2]. The Malayan bear is the smallest specimen and can be found in sizes starting at 25 kilograms and one meter high [bibliography 3].
Bears from temperate and cold lands hibernate, except for the polar bear, which is active all year round. In the autumn, they gain weight, and in the winter they retire to a shelter that protects them from rain, blizzard and frost, and they no longer look for food. They sleep in the bed all winter, without their sleep being a hibernation proper: their body temperature does not drop, and their basic functions, such as breathing and circulation, continue without changes. Their hibernation does not consist of a continuous sleep, but is more of a half-conscious dizziness, from which they wake up as soon as they are disturbed.
Bears are peaceful animals, which avoid conflicts with each other and with other animals or humans. If they have to defend their cubs, food or territory, they become extraordinarily dangerous opponents [bibliography 4]. Near human settlements, they turn into fearsome beasts, attacking large mammals when they are hungry.
Bears are omnivorous animals in the strictest sense of the word, the food being of both animal and vegetable origin.
They can feed for a long time exclusively on vegetables, fruits of all kinds, berries, seeds, cereals, roots, leaves, succulents tree buds and honey. After the winter, it eats a series of herbs, roots, earth mosses and ants, all with laxative effects. Among the animals, they eat everything they can catch: fish, seals, deer, small mammals, birds, bird eggs, insects and even corpses that have not yet rotted.
They live up to 15-30 years in the free state, and in captivity, a polar bear lived 47 years.
They are often portrayed in movies and books, usually with a good-nature and pleasant personality. Among the most popular appearances are: Winnie the Pooh, The Jungle Book, Paddington and Ted.
- Ward and Kynaston, p. 61
- Fitzgerald, C. S.; Krausman, P. S. (2002). “Helarctos malayanus”. Mammalian Species. 696: 1–5. doi:10.1644/1545-1410(2002)696<0001:HM>2.0.CO;2.
- Than, K. (2013). “Maulings by Bears: What’s Behind the Recent Attacks?”. National Geographic.com