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The image shows, viewed from above, the interior of public railway transportation vehicle, consisting of three connected wagons, on electric traction, pulled on rails by a power wagon, facing left and called a tram.

The three wagons are represented in the form of horizontal rectangles, outlined with a thickened line, with the right and left ends narrowed.

The wagons are joined by articulation elements, respectively bellows, which help them twist, and which are similar to an unfolded fan of leather or other fibers.

The delimitation of the wagons by the bellows can be done through the middle, left and right end of the central wagon, being rendered by shapes filled with dotted texture.

Inside, the two bellows have the appearance of wavy walls placed on round and rotating decks, communicating between wagons.

The outer skeleton of the tram, also called the car body, is not present here, so you can see the inside from above.

The double doors and the stairs next to them, rendered in the image by the texture of horizontal and parallel lines, are positioned only on one side of the tram, at the bottom of the drawing.

On the floor of the tram are placed, on two similar rows, thirty-two seats with backrests, next to that of the driver’s, located in his cabin on the right edge.

The seats are marked by small, embossed squares.

The two rows are separated by a long and narrow corridor, framed by metal safety bars, highlighted by short, thin lines, located along the windows on the opposite side to the doors, but also between doors.

There are no seats at the left end of the tram, therefore, it is an empty space where passengers can only stand, holding onto safety bars.

General information

The tram is a rail vehicle that runs along the city streets, and sometimes on a dedicated track. The lines served by trams are called tram lines. Trams have almost exclusively electric traction, although in the 19th century there were also trams pulled by horses.

Trams are usually lighter and shorter than trains and subways. Today, most trams use electric traction, usually the supply is made from a catenary through the pantograph. In some cases a third rail, trolley or lira is used. If necessary, they can have hybrid electric power systems on city streets, and with diesel outside the city. Trams are now usually included in the broader term “light rail”, which also includes other dedicated rail systems.

Tram lines can be extended between cities (for example, by intercity lines, or tram-trains) or even between different countries (for example in Basel, Strasbourg), or can travel on a dedicated route, even in cities (light rail). ). Rarely, trams can also carry freight, for example materials needed for line maintenance. Due to this versatility, the differences between the different modes of rail transport are often blurred.

One of the advantages over previous forms of transport was the low rolling resistance of steel wheels on rails, which allowed the animals to carry a larger load for a given effort. The problem with horse-drawn trams was that the animals could only work for a limited number of hours on a given day, they had to be housed, fed and cared for daily, and produced significant amounts of debris that the company had to dispose of. Electric trams largely replaced those with animal traction at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport, such as buses, led to the decline of trams in the mid-20th century, followed by a revival at the beginning of the 21st century.

In the Romanian language, the word tram comes from the English tram and no distiction is made between articulated or wagon trams or depending on the type of the rail on which it runs. In addition to the terms tram and tramway, in English streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar are also used, depending on the location and type of vehicle.

Bibliography:

  1. Wikiwand, disponibil online la https://www.wikiwand.com/ro/Tramvai accesat la 21 octombrie 2019

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