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The image shows from side a passenger train wagon, consisting of a metal box, equipped with sleeping places specially arranged in cabins, called, berths, lined on the inside with wood, and represented in the form of a horizontal rectangle, elongated and embossed.

In the image above the wagon is represented from the outside, and in the image below from the inside, sectioned.

At its base are four pairs of wheels, laterally illustrated as four thickened circles, with an embossed dot in the middle, located two to the left and two to the right of the base.

In the image above, the iron body or the exterior shell of the wagon is shown embossed.

The left and right ends have a vertical and narrow rectangle, blank outlined, which represents the door.

Along the wagon are aligned, in the upper half, the windows, highlighted by blank rectangles.

In the image below, you can touch the interior structure, so that at the left and right end there is a passenger door for boarding or climbing down, rendered by a vertical and blank rectangle.

The sectioned wagon, from side, consists of a metal box, lined on the inside with wood, and is represented in the form of a horizontal rectangle.

The wagon is not divided into compartments, but has an open space, with two rows of seats, arranged one behind the other, separated in the center by an elongated and narrow corridor.

A small table is placed in the middle of the row of chairs.

Next to each door is a staircase, rendered by three thickened lines, parallel and horizontal.

On the right side, next to the door, is the restroom highlighted by a vertical rectangle filled with dotted texture.

The upper part, narrow and embossed, mounted along the wagon, represents the roof.

Under the roof there is a narrow and elongated rectangle filled with the texture of oblique and parallel lines, which highlights the space for transporting luggage, similar to a shelf.

A man is standing on the left end, next to the door, thus positioned to facilitate the comparison of the dimensions of the passenger car to the height of an adult.

General information

A train consists of one or more vehicles on rails connected to each other, capable of transporting goods or persons on a predetermined route. The propulsion is usually made by a locomotive. Trains are of several types, each designed for a different purpose. They are named after the locomotive. The main types of trains are: steam trains, diesel trains, electric trains and Maglev.

A passenger train is a train that includes one or more locomotives, and one or more passenger cars (persons). Usually, passenger trains have a fixed schedule in which they arrive and depart from the stations. The passenger trains have several classes (I, II and III) and can be stacked, to carry more passengers, or, most, with one level. They can go long distances (long-distance) as well as shorter distances (short-distance). The long-haul trains are also equipped with restaurant wagons and sleeping cars (sleeping cars).

Englishman Thomas Newcomen builds a steam engine in which the pressure of the steam is opposed to the atmospheric pressure, resulting in the movement of the cylinder in the piston. Scottish inventor James Watt enhances Thomas Newcomen’s inefficient steam engine, which was then used to drain water from me. In 1784, Watt patented the invention of a steam locomotive. The discovery and improvement of the steam engine marked an important moment in the history of mankind – the beginning of the industrial revolution – the transition from the production based on the manual technique, to the one based on the systematic use of the machines, from the manufacturing stage, to the big mechanized production, from the factory . In 1897, Rudolf Diesel built the internal combustion engine, at which the ignition of the air and fuel mixture is no longer sparked, but by compression. The diesel engine would revolutionize the railway traction, being today the most used engine in this field. The advantages of Diesel traction were: higher power at the same price, simpler and safer operation, higher efficiency, compared to the lower calorific power of coal, in the case of steam locomotive.

Locomotives can be externally burned, for example, by coal, using steam as a heat engine in steam cars, or with internal combustion, for example, liquid fuels, in diesel engines. As an external energy source, electricity is used, taken from a mains supply. The electric locomotive has as primary energy source the high voltage electric current (in Romania at 25 KV). In the Romanian locomotives the high voltage alternating current is transformed into DC which supplies DC motors that drive the wheels. The current is captured by the pantograph, and it reaches the transformer via connecting rods.

In 1825, the Englishman George Stephenson introduced the first passenger train, traveling at 25 km / h (16 mph). Today trains run at 500 km / h (311 mph). The need for speed on the railroad was escalated when Japan introduced the Shinkansen Arrow train on October 1, 1964, to mark the first Asian Olympic Games held in Tokyo. In 1981, the first French TGV line or train à grande vitesse was launched between Paris and Lyon. The high-speed train system providing connections between the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and the Netherlands, respectively, Eurostar transports 700 passengers at 300 km / h comfortably.

One of the advantages of the TGV system over other high-speed systems such as Maglev magnetic trains is its compatibility with the classical network. This allows to serve the stations in the city center without investing in expensive urban infrastructure. In 2005, TGV remains the fastest train in the world in commercial service. The average speed for a typical journey was 263.3 km / h.

On April 3, 2007, in France, the high-speed train – TGV breaks the speed record on the railway tracks, reaching a speed of 574.8 kilometers per hour.

The original Orient Express was a luxury international rail line created through extraordinary negotiations with all the states through which it passed. Become legendary by the famous travelers and the novel Crime from Orient Express by Agatha Christie, the name of this train has become synonymous with the luxurious journey.

El Tren de las Nubes or the Train of the Clouds is considered one of the highest railways in the world.
It was built in 1930 in Argentina to connect the Salta with San Antonio de los Cabres and has 29 bridges, 21 tunnels, 13 viaducts, 2 spirals and 2 zigzags. The cloud train has a spectacular route, reaching an altitude of 4,200 meters in the north of the country. Its circulation was suspended by the Argentine authorities in 2005, after being blocked at 3000 meters high following a severe storm.

The highest railway in the world is Condor. The station is at an altitude of 4,786 meters, on the Rio Mulatos – Potosi (Bolivia) railroad, which runs along the West – East Cordillera Real (East sector of the Bolivian Andes); this railway is a branch of an artery that ensures the connection of the Bolivian mining area with the shore of the Pacific Ocean (Chile).

The Trans-Siberian (Moscow – Vladivostok, 9,476 km) is the longest railway in the world and the fastest land route connecting Europe to the Far East. Realized at the end of the last century and the beginning of our century, the Trans-Siberian bus has played and plays a huge role in the economic-social development, in capitalizing on the potential of Siberia. The construction of the Siberian sector itself, Celeabinsk (Cel’abinsk) – Vladivostok (7,416 km) was carried out under very heavy conditions (large swamps, endless forests, harsh climate, crossing the great rivers Obi, Angara, Enisei. Started in 1891. the work was completed in 1916.

The Gotthard Base Tunnel is located in Switzerland. With a total length of 35.5 miles (57 kilometers from the Alps), the Gotthard Base Tunnel is the longest railway tunnel in the world, followed by Seikan, Japan, with 33 miles. The Gotthard Railway Tunnel is also the deepest tunnel in the world, dug in the heart of the Alps. Switzerland is a mountainous country, and the Alps is a major barrier to passenger and freight transport. Prior to the construction of the tunnel, most of the transport was carried out by heavy transport, prone to accidents.

Gotthard Tunnel passes over 300 freight and passenger trains daily – which can reach up to 200 kilometers per hour. The construction took 17 years, and its cost amounted to 11 billion euros. The European Union contributed 15% of this amount, the rest being provided by the Swiss.

Bibliography:

  1. Tren, vizualizat pe site la adresa: https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tren#Trenuri_de_pasageri
  2. Istoria transportului feroviar, vizualizată pe site la adresa: https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istoria_transportului_feroviar
  3. Locomotivă, vizualizată pe site la adresa: https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locomotiv%C4%83
  4. Nevoia de viteza a trenurilor, vizualizată pe site la adresa: https://didyouknow.org/ro/trenuri.html
  5. TGV, vizualizată pe site la adresa: https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/TGV
  6. Record de viteză pe calea ferată, vizualizată pe site la adresa: http://stiati-ca.epistole.ro/2013/04/2353/
  7. Orient Express, vizualizată pe site la adresa: http://stiati-ca.epistole.ro/2013/06/stiati-ca-primul-tren-orient-express-a-fost-pus-in-circulatie-la-data-de-5-iunie-1883/
  8. Orient Express, vizualizată pe site la adresa: https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orient_Express
  9. El Tren de las Nubes este a treia cea mai înaltă cale ferată din lume?, vizualizată pe site la adresa: http://stiati-ca.epistole.ro/2013/04/stiati-ca-el-tren-de-las-nubes-este-a-treia-cea-mai-inalta-cale-ferata-din-lume/
  10. Cea mai înalta cale ferata cu ecartament îngust, vizualizată pe site la adresa: http://www.travelers-way.com/cea-mai-inalta-cale-ferata.html
  11. Transsiberianul, vizualizat pe site la adresa: http://www.travelers-way.com/cea-mai-lunga-cale-ferata.html
  12. Cele Mai Lungi Tuneluri Feroviare Din Lume, vizualizată pe site la adresa: https://ro.ripleybelieves.com/longest-railway-tunnels-in-world-3433
  13. https://www.gandul.info/international/cel-mai-lung-tunel-feroviar-din-lume-care-strabate-alpii-elvetieni-pe-57-km-inaugurat-un-spectaculos-video-360-de-grade-16025745

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