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The image shows, from the front, the portrait of the English physicist Michael Faraday.

He is a man in his sixties, with a broad forehead, an elongated and narrow face, with a voluminous and rich hair, which is combed middle part and is rendered embossed.

Along the cheeks, left and right of the face, close to the jaw, the head is framed by long sideburns or bushy side whiskers, facial hair grown on the sides of the face, rendered by the texture of oblique and parallel lines.

He has bushy eyebrows, shown embossed and small eyes.

He has an elongated nose with a pointed tip and convex nostrils at the lower edge, thin and stretched lips, rendered by two thick and slightly curved lines, located under the nose, and a square chin.

He wears a vintage suit, with a jacket and a shirt with a high collar, closed with buttons on the chest.

To the collar of the shirt, at the base of the neck, is wrapped a bow tie, made of a scarf, marked embossed.

The shirt is highlighted by a dotted texture, framed by the jacket marked by a grid texture.

The button on the central border of the shirt is highlighted by an embossed circle, the bottom edge.

General information

On 22 September 1791, in Newington, not far away from London, England, was born Michael Faraday, in a poor blacksmith’s family, who was unable to send him to school.

When the child turned 13 years old, he was sent as an apprentice to a book dealer and bookbinder. He started working by delivering newspapers, then he learned the trade of bookbinding. Working with books, he read a lot and felt drawn towards popular science. One of the clients gave him the possibility to attend the lectures of chemist Sir Humphry Davy from the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 

In 1812 when he finished his apprenticeship, young Faraday decided to devote himself to science. He succeeded in obtaining a job at the Royal Institution, actually working for Davy, where he began as laboratory assistant, being responsible for washing the glassware. He continued to study diligently, broadening his knowledge horizon. 

In 1815 he came back from a voyage across Europe, where he accompanied Davy, and began to help with chemistry experiments. He obtained two compounds of carbon and chlorine.

Ten years of diligent and hard scientific activity followed, working alongside Davy and experimenting with gas liquefaction, conducting research regarding steel alloys and well-grounded studies for creating a new type of glass lenses for telescopes.

In 1824, Faraday was elected a member of the Royal Society of London.

In 1825 he discovered benzene, which quickly became one of the most important hydrocarbons. In the same year, he became the laboratory director of the Royal Institute, then chemistry professor and, after Davy’s death, his successor.

1831 is the year that brought the most important breakthrough for Faraday, meaning ‘the magnetic electro-induction phenomenon”, which was the result of a ten-year research. Faraday thus proved the existence of induction currents that form in the conductors placed in a variable magnetic field. 

The practical use of this discovery is seen throughout the entire electric power industry (generators of direct and alternating current, nighttime street lights, engines or motors, the transmission of energy on long distances, electric transformers). At the same time, Faraday coined terms such as: electrolysis, cathode, anode, ions. 

The discovery of electro-magnetic induction was the basis upon which the electro-technical industry was developed later on, and Faraday published this study as the first part of a series of works called “Experimental Researches in Electricity”. In the meantime, Faraday also focused on studying the chemical effects of the electric current. 

In 1833 he discovered two important laws of electricity, laws that later on received his name (“The Electrolysis Law” and “The Law of Electromagnetic Induction”).

The experiments and observations alternated with new discoveries. Faraday was the first to correctly explain the formation of electromotor tension in the galvanic element, demonstrating the existence of auto-induction and introducing in physics the term of “field”, through which he explained electric and magnetic phenomena.

He also invented “the transformer” and “the electric generator”, which did not change their main principles, as he had stated them back then, and are still currently in use.

Due to his excessive work style, he began to experience health problems.

After a prolonged stay in the Alps, he recovered so well that he was able to go back to his experiments. In the same year he discovered “diamagnetism”.

In his last years, Faraday studied lines of magnetic force, which form around the electric current and magnets. He did not forget about young people either, to whom he dedicated a well-received book, “The Chemical History of a Candle”.

In 1858 Faraday bid goodbye to the Royal Institution and settled in Hampton Court, not far from London, in a house given by the Queen. He kept complaining about the fact that his memory failed him. His whole life he had had a happy marriage, even if they did not have children.  

In 1867, he died on August, 24th, in Hampton Court. Faraday told his assistants: “The genius creates. Talent is what shapes what the genius has brought into the world.”

Farad = (F) is a unit of measurement for the electrical capacitance and was named so in his memory.

1 farad is the electrical capacitance of a condenser which, at a 1 volt voltage, receives an electrical charge of 1 coulomb.

Bibliography

  1. Faimosi Inventatori, Tip. Multiprint, Iasi, 2004.
  2. https://www.ro.biography.name/fizicieni/53-anglia-uk/168-michael-faraday-1791-1867
  3. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Michael-Faraday/Theory-of-electrochemistry

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