Image description

The image shows a classic, incandescent light bulb on the right, illustrated with the light bulb facing up.

It works on the principle of heating the metal filament inside the glass bulb to incandescence, producing light and heat.

The glass bulb or glass shell, is marked by an elongated circle at the bottom.

Inside the circle are two thin lines, positioned obliquely, one on the left and one on the right, representing the contact wires, which are joined at the top by a spiral line, representing the filament.

In the center of the contact wires is the glass mount, rendered by a vertical rectangle, embossed, with the upper end domed.

When the bulb is lit, the atoms of the metal filament pass into a state of agitation that leads to the release of photons or electromagnetic radiation particles with energy and momentum.

The agitated electrons of the atoms cause electromagnetic radiation and emit heat at very high temperatures.

The thinner the conductor, respectively the metal wire called filament, the faster it heats up and radiates light, than in the case of a thick one.

However, after a long period of heating of the material, the filament thins and breaks, which leads to burning of the bulb.

The lower part of the bulb, below the glass shell, is represented by the lamp holder connection, with a spiral-shaped outer shell, easy to screw.

The screw thread contact is rendered by outlined edges with a wavy and thickened vertical line, and in the middle are shown blank horizontal strips, alternating with others embossed.

Inside the screw elements, the left contact wire extends to the bottom, at the base of the bulb, its end being called the electrical foot contact, and the right contact wire stops laterally, at the right edge of the screw contact, forming the base contact wire.

The bulb is screwed into a socket or metal part of the luminaire, into which the bulb screw contact is inserted and which ensures the transmission of electricity from the network to the light bulb.

General information

Before the discovery and spread of electricity, all the luminaires were based on fire. Even some luminaires using electricity are based on the high temperature, equivalent to fire.

The incandescent bulb is an example of such a luminaire. The main inventor of the light bulb is Thomas Edison, but his invention was later improved by other scientists. It illuminates by passing the electric current through a metal filament. At the action of the electric current, the tungsten filament heats up to thousands of degrees and becomes incandescent. Incandescence is the state of an extremely hot body that emits light and heat. An incandescent bulb consists of several elements, the most important of which are:

  • the glass flask, i.e. the part that we can touch from the outside and which protects the components inside;
  • the metal filament inside the glass flask;
  • Inert gas protecting the filament from oxidation;
  • contact wires;
  • the threaded socket, by which the bulb can be fixed in a support called socket.

The main advantage of the incandescent bulb is the low production price and the big disadvantage is the increased consumption of electric cures.

The next stage in the development of the bulb was the appearance of fluorescence bulbs. They work by passing the current through mercury vapour, which releases ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet light or beam is aeromagnetic electronic radiation, invisible to the human eye. In the fluorescent light bulb, ultraviolet light is converted into visible light using the phosphorus.

The main advantages of the fluorescence bulb compared to the incandescent bulb is the extended life span, but also the lower electricity consumption. One of the disadvantages is the presence of heavy metals in the composition, for example mercury. These heavy metals are very toxic, harmful to health.

The most modern light bulbs are made of luminescent diodes and are called LED bulbs, from light emitting diode. A luminescent diode or LED illuminates on the principle of the emission of photons. The photon is the elementary particle that makes any electromagnetic phenomenon possible. LEDs are present in almost all modern electronic devices. They have the advantage that they can be manufactured in very varied sizes. Mobile phone screens are illuminated using LEDs. An electric bulb with luminescent diodes can contain thousands of very small LEDs. The biggest advantage of LED bulbs is the very low consumption of electricity. Compared to an incandescent bulb that consumes 100 watts per hour, an LED bulb consumes even ten times less energy to emit the same amount of light.

Did you know that LED bulbs do not heat like incandescent bulbs? If an incandescent light bulb is hot during operation, an LED light bulb can be touched by hand and will not burn us. Therefore, the risk of a fire due to LED bulbs is almost zero.



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